A mineral is an element that originates in the Earth and always retains its chemical identity. Minerals occur as inorganic crystalline salts. Once minerals enter the body, they remain there until excreted. They cannot be changed into anything else. Minerals cannot be destroyed by heat, air, acid, or mixing. Compared to other nutrients such as protein, carbohydrates and fat, vitamins and minerals are present in food in tiny quantities. This is why vitamins and minerals are called micronutrients, because we consume them only in small amounts.
Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body. Ninety-nine percent of the body’s calcium is in the bones and teeth. Calcium is an integral part of bone structure, necessary to create a rigid frame to hold the body upright and for movement. Calcium in the bones also serves as a bank from which the body can withdraw calcium to compensate for low intakes. The remaining 1% of the body’s calcium is in the body fluids, where it helps regulate blood pressure and muscle movement.
The primary sources of calcium
Milk and milk products, small fish (with bones), calcium-set tofu (bean curd), and legumes, spinach, Chinese cabbage, kale, broccoli.
magnesium for muscle pain
More than half the body’s magnesium is found in the bones, where it plays an important role in development and maintenance of bone. Much of the rest of the mineral is found in the muscles and soft tissues, with only 1% in the extracellular fluid. Bone magnesium serves as a reservoir for magnesium to ensure normal magnesium blood concentrations.
The primary sources of magnesium
Nuts, legumes, whole grains, dark green vegetables, and seafood
phosphorus ckd10 – high phosphorus
About 85% of phosphorus in the body is combined with calcium in the bones and teeth. In all body cells, phosphorus is part of a major buffer system (phosphoric acid and its salts). Phosphorus is also part of DNA and RNA, which are essential components of all cells. Phosphorus assists in energy metabolism in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The ATP molecule uses three phosphate groups to do its work. Many enzymes and the B-vitamins become active only when a phosphate group is attached.
The primary sources of phosphorus
Phosphorus is found naturally in many foods. Animal-source foods such as meat, fish, poultry, eggs, and milk are excellent sources, as are sunflower seeds.
lisinopril and potassium
Potassium is the body’s principal positively charged ion (cation) inside our cells. Its major role is to keep us alive. Potassium is essential for maintenance of normal fluid and electrolyte balance, enzyme reactions, cell integrity, and muscle contraction. Potassium and sodium are pumped across the cell membrane, a process that drives nerve impulse transmission. serum potassium
The primary sources of potassium
Fruits and vegetables, especially vine fruits (tomato, cucumber, zucchini, eggplant, pumpkin), leafy greens and root vegetables, grains, meat, legumes.
Chromium is an essential mineral that participates in the metabolism of glucose and fats. Like iron, chromium assumes different charges. Cr3+ is the most stable form and is commonly found in foods; other Cr charges, like Cr6+, are toxic. Chromium helps maintain blood glucose levels b
enhancing the activity of the hormone insulin.
The primary sources of chromium
Chromium is found in egg yolk, whole grains, high-bran cereals, green beans, broccoli, nuts, and brewer’s yeast.
Diets rich in simple sugars may actually increase urinary excretion of chromium due to enhanced insulin secretion.
Copper is a constituent of several enzymes. Copper-dependent enzymes transport iron and load it into hemoglobin, a protein that carries oxygen through the blood. Copper-dependent enzymes release energy from glucose; provide a natural defense against free radicals that damage the body; manufacture collagen (required by skin and bone); inactivate histamine, which is responsible for allergic
reactions; and degrade dopamine into a neurotransmitter so cells can “talk” to each other.
The primary sources of copper
Seafood, nuts, whole grains, seeds and legumes, and organ meats (offal).
burt’s bees purely white
Fluoride is present in soils, water supplies, plants and animals. Fluoride is critical for healthy teeth and bones. Only a trace of fluoride is found in the body, but even at these tiny amounts, the crystalline deposits of fluoride result in larger and stronger bones and makes teeth more resistant to decay.
The primary sources of fluoride
Drinking water (if fluoride-containing or fluoridated), tea, seafood (especially if eaten with bones).
Traces of the iodine ion (called iodide) are indispensable to life. Iodide is an integral part of the thyroid hormones that regulate body temperature, metabolic rate, reproduction, growth, blood cell production, nerve and muscle function and more. By controlling the rate at which the cells use oxygen,
The primary sources of iodine
Most foods have low iodine content. Iodized salt, seafood, plants grown in iodine-rich soil and animals fed those plants or feed containing iodine are good sources. Some foods may be sources of iodine if iodized salt is used in their preparation (e.g. bread).
Iron’s main role is to accept, carry and release oxygen. Most of the body’s iron is found in two oxygen-carrying proteins – hemoglobin, a protein found in red blood cells, and myoglobin, which is found in the muscle cells. Iron also serves as a cofactor to enzymes in oxidation/reduction reaction
(i.e., accepts or donates electrons). These reactions are vital to cells’ energy metabolism.
The primary sources of iron
Red meats, fish, poultry, shellfish, eggs, legumes, grains, dried fruits.
Almost all cells contain zinc and it is a vital nutrient for growth and development. The highest concentrations are found in muscle and bone. The body tightly regulates zinc levels. Stress and infections cause plasma zinc levels to fall.
The primary sources of zinc
Meats, some shellfish, legumes, whole grains, and some fortified cereals.
Selenium is one of the body’s antioxidant nutrients, protecting the body against oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is a natural by-product of the body’s metabolism. Selenium also regulates thyroid hormone and oxidative reduction reactions of vitamin C. Selenium, along with vitamin E, works
to reduce the free radicals that are generated through cellular processes.
The primary sources of selenium
Selenium is found in seafood, meat, whole grains, dairy, fruits, and vegetables. The selenium content in plant food varies according to selenium soil content. Animal-source foods are reliabl sources of selenium because selenium is required by animals and thus added to their feed.